Revelation 17 - Outline of Revelation (Book Notes menu page)
17:1 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials,
and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee
the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and
the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
one of the seven angels... talked with me... Come hither, I will shew thee...-
In ch. 16, John watched as seven angels poured out the wrath of God (prophetically) upon 'Great Babylon,' at the close of the great Tribulation period. Now, John is shown a wider picture of Babylon: What it is, and Why it is worthy of such severe judgment. The angel takes John back, from the close of the Tribulation, to a new view of Babylon which spans the entire seven year Tribulation.
In ch. 17 and 18, Babylon is revealed in several aspects:
  1. Ecclesiastical (religious) Babylon (the apostate church), 17:1-6,18
  2. Political Babylon (the kingdom of the beast, with Satan's worship at its core), 17:7-17
  3. Commercial Babylon, 18:1-19
    (Some interpreters view Political & Commercial Babylon as one entity.)
In Revelation, the term 'Babylon' is applied to these distinct but interrelated systems, which are referred to as 'mysteries' (v.5,7). As 'mysteries' their meaning remains hidden, until revealed by the Lord. Because their meaning extends beyond what the eye can see, we should not assume that these systems are necessarily headquartered in the geographic city by that name. (Other possible locations are discussed at the end of the notes on this chapter.)
whore (harlot)- 'Spiritual adultery' aptly describes the unfaithfulness of both...
The unfaithfulness may be doctrinal, moral or both. cp. 2Pet 2:1-3; Titus 1:16; Jam 4:4,5
'The great harlot' (here) is the ultimate form of the apostate church,
which is rooted in the errors of the church in Thyatira (meaning: 'continual sacrifice', Rev 2:18-23). Her members call themselves 'christians' and claim to serve Christ. But they practise fleshly religion, contrary to sound biblical doctrine. Having never been born again of God's Spirit, they have no part in the body of Christ (cp. Mat 7:21-23; Joh 8:44; Rom 8:5-9).
     The 'space' allowed for her repentance has past. The time for her judgment has come, as she is cast into the great Tribulation (Rev 2:20-23). Yet, even in Thyatira, there is a believing remnant which will escape God's wrath (2:24-29).
     From the detailed description given in this chapter, it is apparent that the Roman Catholic Church either is the harlot, or will provide the framework upon which she is built. (See notes at 2:20-23.)
sits on many waters- This phrase is explained in v.15.
The false church has worldwide popular support and influence.
kings...committed fornication- There is an unholy alliance between church & state.
Truth is disregarded as leaders use religion & politics to project their power and control the people.
inhabitants of the earth... drunk with the wine of her fornication-
Earth's people, inebriated with her pernicious errors, and oblivious to the Truth, embrace her seductive lies. (cp. 14:8; 2The 2:7-12)
17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness:
carried away in spirit- a state of spiritual ecstasy, a vision. (cp. 1:10; 4:2; 21:10)
into wilderness {'the' is absent in the GK text}- This is not "the wilderness" of 12:6,14.
It may be symbolic of spiritual barrenness & confusion (the meaning of "Babel").
and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast,
full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
a woman- She is the harlot of v.1.
sit upon- GK= kathemai, to sit down, to dwell, to rest comfortably (see this word in v.1,9,15).
The harlot is supported by and exercises influence over the beast.
This calls to mind 'the Holy See' {'see' is from Latin 'sedes' meaning 'seat'} which refers to the 'seat' (ie., 'throne') of worldwide governmental authority, claimed by the R.C.C.
a scarlet coloured beast- ie., the dragon, Satan (Rev 12:3),
especially as revealed in the Antichrist (the final ruler of the gentile world power system, Rev 13:1).
full of names of blasphemy- Satan, the Antichrist, and their world system,
are characterized by blasphemy against the true and living God. Blasphemy marks each of the heads of the beast, and permeates the great things which he speaks (Rev 13:1,5). The harlot, the corrupt religious system, is at home in this environment, for her religion blasphemes {ie., vilifies, slanders, maligns} the true God, His unchangeable Word, and His one Way of salvation (Joh 14:6).
scarlet... beast- Scarlet was the color of kings.
But also reminds us of the bloodshed under the beast's rule (Rev 13:7), in which she is complicit (17:6).
17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour,
and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup
in her hand full of abominations and
{ie., even the} filthiness of her fornication:
purple & scarlet- The colors of the Roman emperors signifying priesthood & royalty.
R.C.C. bishops are robed in purple, cardinals are robed in scarlet.
decked {'adorned' [NASB], lit., 'gilded'} with gold and precious stones and pearls...-
When the church is impoverished of the inner value which "in the sight of God is of great price," she adorns the external to excess to compensate for her inner lack. cp. Isa 3:16-26; Mat 23:16-22; 1Pet 3:3-4; Rev 3:17
     The value of such treasures, held by the R.C.C., is incalculable. Much of her wealth was acquired through the sale of indulgences, by which the church made merchandise of her patrons (cp. 2Pet 2:3).
a golden cup... full of abominations {GK=bdelugma, detestable things, idolatry}...-
According to current R.C.C. teaching, the chalice used by a priest in celebrating the mass, and from which he drinks the wine (which they believe is transubstantiated into the real blood of Christ) must be made either of gold or of silver, but if it is made of silver, the inner surface of the bowl must be of gold. Thus, the blood of Christ is afforded the highest honor. The chalice and the blood are seen as equally precious, due to a strict literal interpretation of the word 'is', in 1Cor 10:16 and 11:24,25.
     However, the ritualistic system, by which grace is dispensed by the church to those who participate in its sacraments (including the 'continual sacrifice' presented in the mass) is 'another gospel,' which is an idolatrous departure from simple personal faith in Christ, our High Priest who offered Himself once for all (Heb 7:27; 10:10-14). If possible, the doctrines of demons will be even more pervasive in the counterfeit church of the Tribulation period. Gal 1:6-8; 1Cor 10:14; 2Cor 11:3,4; 1Tim 4:1-3
and filthiness {GK=akathartes, moral impurity} of her fornication {GK=porneia, adultery, harlotry, incest}-
In addition to spiritual and political adultery, the R.C.C. is tainted with a history of sexual abuse and perversion, due to its unbiblical requirement that priests be celibate (contrary to NT teaching and practice, eg., Mat 19:12; 1Cor 7:7-9; 9:5; 1Tim 3:2; Titus 1:5,6).
     Currently, official R.C.C. doctrine regards homosexual activity as sin and forbids same sex marriage. However, this stance appears to be softening in favor of inclusivity (contrary to the protests of conservative clerics).
17:5 And upon her forehead [was] a name written,
mystery- This word is descriptive of her title, not part of it.
As the true Church was a mystery, not revealed by God in the OT (Eph 3:1-9),
so, the "anti-church" was kept secret and would not be fully revealed in John's day.
     However, it is notable that the R.C.C. refers to its doctrines, sacraments, and liturgy as 'mysteries.' The laity, being unable to explore these deeper things, remains dependent upon church and priests to dispense whatever grace and truth they need. [In contrast, the Bible speaks of 'mysteries' in the context of revealing previously hidden things. eg., Rom 16:25-27; 1Cor 2:7-16; 4:1; cp. 2Tim 2:2]
Babylon- The original Babylon (Babel) was the fountainhead of false religion,
which was designed to unite mankind and avoid division of the world (Gen 11:1-4).
     To this end, the harlot, the false christian church, embraces false religious systems on a grand scale. Seeking syncretism with all faith communities, she includes something for everyone. The R.C.C. has long embraced syncretism with indigenous religious traditions. In recent years, mosques and temples to other religions and cults (eg., Mormonism) have been welcomed in and around Vatican City.
     In 2019, Pope Francis and Imam Al Tayyeb of Al Azhar (a prominent Sunni cleric) met in Abu Dhabi, to sign their joint "Declaration on Human Fraternity," in which they state that "God not only permits, but positively wills, the pluralism and diversity of religions, both Christian and non-Christian." In 2021, this pope met with Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani (a prominent Shi-ite Muslim leader) in Iraq, where they made a similar verbal statement of human brotherhood which transcends religious doctrines. The pope referred to these Islamic leaders as 'men of God.' Subsequently, several Catholic leaders complained that these statements verge on heresy, citing John 14:6 and Acts 4:11,12. One of them (Prof. Roberto de Mattei) summarized the Pope's October 2020 encyclical 'Fratelli tutti' (meaning: 'All Brothers') as follows: "The absolute truth (in 'Fratelli tutti') is not Jesus Christ, in whose name and in whose baptism Christians are brothers... Fraternity is a value superior to Christ himself because it has the ability, according to Pope Francis, to reconcile Christians, Muslims, Buddhists and atheists themselves, who also have their faith and convictions."
     [Apparently, as these notes are being written, there are still some in the R.C.C. who hold these doctrinal truths (Rev 2:24-29). But is their faith in the Grace of God in Christ (Rom 5:1,2; Eph 2:8), or in their accumulated merit according to 'another gospel' as taught by their church? Following the Rapture of any born again believers, their opposition to false doctrine will be absent.]
The mother of harlots- implies that she has daughters which indulge in her errors.
Many protestant denominations, originally formed in protest to R.C.C. errors, have already fallen into apostasy. While retaining some distinctives of form or ritual, they also have forsaken biblical truth for 'another gospel' (Gal 1:6-9; 2Cor 4:3,4). No longer recognizing the validity of the scriptural issues which once separated them, the thrust of these churches is ecumenicity with Rome.
17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints,
and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus:
She made others drunk with her seductive errors (v.2).
She is giddy with the persecution of true believers.
(Historically, countless martyrs, condemned as heretics, were tortured and slain by the R.C.C.. Countless more will die under the future world religious system.)
and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration {lit., wonder}.
I wondered with great wonder- The repetition of the GK word is emphatic.
(cp. similar emphatic method in Mat 2:10; Eph 2:4)
17:7 And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel?
I will tell thee the mystery of the woman,
and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
wherefore- GK= dia ti, On account of what?
Was John astonished at her gaudiness, at her filthiness, at her seduction of worldly kings, at the murders that made her giddy? or, at the prospect that this harlot claims to be the church of Christ?
John was not expected to understand what he saw, since the angel offers explanation:
the mystery- The angel said he would explain two mysteries:
1. The mystery of the woman (explained second, v.15-18).
2. The mystery of the beast that carries her (explained first, v.8-14).
17:8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not;
and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit
{GK=abussos, abyss},
and go into perdition
{GK=apoleia, damnation, destruction}:
and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder,
whose names were not written in the book of life
from the foundation of the world,
when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is
{most MSS, 'yet shall be present'}.
The beast, here, is the Antichrist, as identified by-
-- the ascension out of the abyss of the satanic spirit which empowers him (11:7; 13:2,4),
-- the worship afforded him for his apparent resurrection (cp. 13:3,8),
-- his final destination (19:20).
The beast and the false church will engage in mutual support and cooperation,
during the first half of the Tribulation (as demonstrated by comparison of the verb tenses in v.8, with those of 13:3-8).
     Here (in v.8, in the context of the beast's relationship with the whore, v.1-7), the beast's ascension from the pit and his counterfeit 'resurrection' from death are still future (note the double occurrence of 'shall'), as it will be during the first half of the Tribulation. That period will be dominated by the 'rider on a white horse' (6:1,2), who will establish a false peace (his 'firm covenant with many' of Dan 9:27), in cooperation with the false church (the Great Whore).
     At Rev 13:3-7, the transformation of the 'rider on a white horse' into the beast (through Satan's counterfeit resurrection and incarnation) has just taken place (at the mid-point of the Tribulation), and the beast's 42 month reign has just begun. (Those verses are in the past tense.)
     Rev 13:8 is in the future tense, as it anticipates the remainder of his reign. Having established himself as the object of worship (near the mid-point of the seven year Tribulation, 2The 2:3,4), he will seek to eliminate all competitors, including the true saints and the false church (see v.16,17).
The variant reading of the last line ("yet is" versus "yet shall be present")
is due to the mislocation of the prefix syllable of the GK sentence's last word, to be the suffix of the prior word. The preferred reading, of the last line, is consistent with the tenses of the first line of the verse (ie., 'was... is not... yet shall be present'). [JBS]
they that dwell on the earth shall wonder {ie., marvel, admire}...
The citizens of earth will worship the Antichrist (Rev 13:3,4,8).
whose names were not written... from the foundation of the world...-
Note that the names of the unsaved were never written in the Book of Life.
(Names 'written from the foundation of the world' will never be blotted out of the Lamb's Book of Life. See note at Rev 3:5, which some misread as teaching the potential loss of salvation.)
17:9 And here [is] the mind which hath wisdom.
wisdom- Considering many divergent views, the reader needs the wisdom which comes from God, to correctly understand the content of ch. 17 & 18. (cp. Rev 13:18; 1Cor 2:13)
The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.
Various interpreters say:
  1. The 7 mountains identify Rome as the seat of the woman (perhaps also of the beast).
    From antiquity, Rome has been known as "the city of seven hills."
  2. The 7 mountains are figurative of successive kings/kingdoms (as shown by v.10).
    A "mountain" in scripture often signifies a kingdom.
    (eg., the Kingdom of Christ, as foretold in Dan 2:34-35,44.)
  3. Both of the above are true. [JBSmith]
    View #2 is most consistent with the immediate context (v.10).
    However, the woman's city is identified as Rome in v.18 (even without the '7 hills' argument of view #1). Note that v.18 is in the present tense. The angel, speaking to John, identified the woman's city as the one that was reigning over the earth in John's day.
17:10 And there are seven kings: {lit., and are seven kings}
five are fallen, and one is, [and] the other is not yet come;
and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
The 7 mountains / heads (of v.9) are plainly said to be "seven kings":
five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come -
Who or What are these 7 kings?
The answer differs depending on one's interpretation of the 'seven hills' in v.9.
  1. If the 7 mountains refer strictly to Rome as the 7 hilled city (view #1 above),
    all of these 'kings' must be constrained to the Roman empire. Possibly referring to...
    • Roman emperors who suffered violent deaths ("are fallen") -
      [Julius Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius were assassinated. Nero committed suicide.]
    • Seven successive forms of Roman government -
      [kings, consuls, dictators, decemvirs, military tribunes, imperial, and satanic].
  2. If the 7 mountains are seven successive kingdoms,
    but not 7 kings within the Roman empire (view #2 above).
    • This is consistent with Daniel's prophecies depicting successive empires, and a little horn that will arise out of the last of them.
    • Those empires are personified in their kings. (eg., Babylon and Nebuchadnezer, together, were the 'head of gold'. Dan 2:37-39)
    • These are the 7 heads of the beast which we previously identified (in ch.13) as the seven successive kingdoms of gentile world power. In John's day, five of these had already passed into history, the Roman empire was in power, and a future kingdom was yet to come. That seventh kingdom will be ruled by a false 'prince of peace' (the 'rider on a white horse', 6:1,2) during the first half of the 7 year Tribulation. That brief period ("a short space", v.10) closes when he receives a "deadly wound." (See notes at 13:1-3.)
17:11 And the beast that was, and is not,
even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
{cp. 19:20}
even he- ie., he himself. This refers to a person, not a kingdom.
After this final ruler of the seventh kingdom suffers a deadly wound (perhaps an attempted assassination), he appears to be resurrected when a satanic spirit ascends out of the abyss and indwells his body. This event will alter his personality, equip him with unprecedented power, and transform him into 'the beast' (the Antichrist). Although he is 'of the seven', his satanic nature will set him in a category by himself, such that he will become the 'eighth' king in his own right. (Rev 11:7; 13:3,4)
Note: Some believe that the eighth king (Antichrist) is actually one of the seven Roman emperors (listed in point 'A.' at v.10) who is resurrected by Satan for this role (perhaps Nero, since his name can be calculated as 666).
In contradiction to that view, consider:
  1. Satan has not been given power to raise the dead (cf. Joh 5:21,25-27).
  2. "It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment" (Heb 9:27).
  3. The wicked dead are not raised until the Great White Throne Judgment (Rev 20:11-15).
17:12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings,
which have received no kingdom as yet;
but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
The 7 heads/mountains represent seven successive empires. The ruler of the last of these empires (the beast, Antichrist) will be supported by ten contemporary (but lesser) kings, who may govern 10 administrative regions. These kings are represented by ten horns in v.3; 13:1; Dan 7:7-8,23-28, and by ten toes in Dan 2:31-45.
[See notes at Rev 13:1-3. Also see the Book Notes at Dan 2:31-45 and 7:7-8,23-28.]
     Since they will receive their power for "one hour with the beast," attempts to identify these ten kings or their regions are speculative, until that time. Various Bible scholars have suggested:
As stated in Dan 7:24...
17:13 These have one mind,
and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
Perhaps unity of leadership will be considered necessary for the crisis of the hour. Even today, the U.N. member nations yield national sovereignty to the greater good of the world body. Apparently, the beast will find it necessary to force three uncooperative kings to surrender their power to him (Dan 7:7,8).
What is the crisis of that hour? . . .
17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb,
and the Lamb shall overcome them:
for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: {19:16}
and they that are with him [are] called, and chosen, and faithful. {19:14}
'these'- ie., the beast and the kings of the earth (19:19).
The beast & company were allowed to make war with the saints and to prevail against them, during the last 42 months of the Tribulation (eg., 13:7). Moved with satanic hatred, their true objective is to break free of the Lord and His Anointed (ie., His Messiah). Psa 2:1-9
the Lamb- His title expresses the price of redemption,
which is rejected by men as unnecessary and offensive.
War with Him is the logical outcome of "denying the Lord that bought them." 2Pet 2:1
they that are with Him- ie., the saints of all ages, present with the Lord. 2Cor 5:8
The adjectives describing this group are applied elsewhere to the Church:
called (1Cor 1:24), chosen (1Pet 2:9; 1Cor 1:27), faithful (ie., dependable) (Eph 1:1, Rev 2:10).
The angel's explanation of the "mystery of the woman" (cp. v.7) follows:
17:15 And he saith unto me,
The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth,
are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.
This speaks of the worldwide influence of the apostate church.
17:16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon {some MSS, 'and', cp. v.13} the beast,
these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked,
and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
The timing of the harlot's destruction is not indicated here.
However, it seems to fit at mid-tribulation (see note at v.8 above). She is tolerated as a means to power. But when the Antichrist sets himself up as god, he not only breaks his covenant with Israel, but also breaks his relationship with the apostate church.
desolate and naked- Her rich covering is removed revealing her true condition.
cp. v.4; 2:20-22; 3:17
eat her flesh- Speaks of total destruction.
cp. the fate of historical Jezebel: 1Kin 21:23; 2Kin 9:30-37; Rev 2:23
burn her with fire- Sin must be purged away.
In the OT, extreme sin was purged with fire. Lev 20:14; 21:9; Josh 7:15,25; Jam 4:4; 5:3
17:17 For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will {lit., to do his mind},
and to agree
{lit., to come to one mind}, and give their kingdom unto the beast,
until the words of God shall be fulfilled
{ie., shall be finished}.
The destruction of the apostate church is accomplished at the hands of her lovers.
But it is initiated by God.
cp. His historic judgment of Jerusalem for her whoredoms. Lam 1:1-3; Eze 23:5,9,10,22
God has frequently used the heathen to accomplish His purposes. (eg., Pharaoh, Ex 9:16; Nebuchadnezzar, Dan 4:17; Cyrus, Isa 44:28; Ezra 1:1; 7:27; also Psa 76:10)
The absence of the apostate church does not improve the religious atmosphere.
It merely gives the religion of Antichrist full freedom. [McGee]
17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city,
which reigneth
{lit., hath a kingdom} over the kings of the earth.
The great city "which reigns" (present tense), in John's day, was Rome.
After the fall of the Roman empire, Rome continued to exercise varying degrees
of power over earth's kings through the R.C.C.. Historically, the doctrine of papal supremacy, afforded popes the divine right to depose kings and emperors and to determine their successors. Examples of popes exercising power and influence over rulers and nations are too numerous to list. Consider these:
  • In January 1077, King Henry IV of Germany stood barefoot in snow outside the papal palace for 2 days attempting to regain favor with the pope.
  • Most recent U.S. pesidents have had official interaction with R.C.C. popes, some face to face. Pres. Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II worked closely together against the 'Evil Empire' of atheistic Soviet communism. They met personally in Rome on June 7, 1982 and June 6, 1987, and also at several other locations, including the International Airport in Fairbanks, Alaska, on May 2, 1984.
  • In September 2015, communist dictator Fidel Castro made overtures to the R.C.C. by hosting Pope Francis' papal visit to Cuba.
  • As of January 2021, 28 nations (including Israel and the USA) maintain embassies at the Vatican, while the Vatican maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 183 nations, including embassies or consulates (called 'nuncios') in 108 nations. The Holy See also holds permanent observer status at the United Nations.
The mysterious location of religious Babylon, the Great Harlot, is clearly identified by v.9 and 18.
The counterfeit church of the Tribulation, which prostitutes biblical teaching in the name of unity, is headquartered in Rome.
Babylon the Great - A Summary
     Regarding Babylon as presented in Revelation, sound bible scholars, who agree in substance, differ as to the details. This is because, God, who provided us an adequately full picture of prophetic events, has determined that the picture will grow increasingly clear as the time draws near. (This is true of all prophecy. eg., 1Pet 1:10-12) Those who are watching for Christ's return will naturally seek to know the "what or what manner of time" of endtime events. But we will not understand fully, until the time.
Here are some questions and suggested answers:
  1. Who or What is Babylon the Great?
  2. Where is Babylon the Great located?
  3. When will Babylon be destroyed?
  4. How (by whom) will Babylon be destroyed?
A. Who or What is Babylon the Great? (See also notes at 2:20-23.)
Babylonianism began at Babel.
There, man attempted to establish himself in the earth (as one people, one city, one world) with the goal of self-determination. United in purpose, they set out to build a tower to the heavens, which they called Bab-ili (meaning 'Gate of God,' in the ancient Akkadian language of Mesopotamia). By this, mankind sought to exalt themselves to the exclusion of the true God. But God pronounced man's purpose "confusion" (HB= balal), confounded the languages, and divided the earth into many nations. From that time onward, 'Babel' became synonymous with 'confusion' and senseless 'babble.' (Gen 10:25; 11:1-9)
However, one nation, Israel, was "not to be counted among the nations" (Num 23:9; Deu 14:2; 32:8).
Through this nation, the Anointed One (Messiah) would come to establish God's uncontested dominion in the earth. (Num 24:17-19)
But, to her shame, Israel was seduced and overtaken with the world's confusion (Dan 9:7,8).
God's promises to Israel were set aside temporarily,
when, at the height of their national glory, they turned from Him to serve the gods of the nations (following the philosophy of Babel). Fittingly, they were taken captive by Babylon (in 586 BC). This marked the beginning of the "times of the gentiles" (or, "times of the nations", Luk 21:24).
     Nebuchadnezzar was the first of the line of gentile rulers in this period. He was a king of kings (Dan 2:37). Many succeeding rulers have considered themselves as such. But the times of the nations will end with the coming of the true King of kings (Rev 19:16).
In Revelation, the story of man's attempt at self-determination is in its final chapter.
Babylon is seen in its final state: Man has become great, rich, well established, and united in the earth. Though spread around the globe, men are no longer scattered and divided, for together they pursue the confused desire to discard God's dominion over them.
This confusion is seen in all areas of life & society.
Some areas stand out boldly in Revelation.
However, interpreters differ as to their relative importance. For example, in ch. 17 & 18 some see only Religious Babylon, others see only Religious & Political Babylon, others observe:
Three aspects of Babylon (as outlined in ch. 17 & 18) --
  1. Ecclesiastical (religious) Babylon, 17:1-7,15-18
  2. Political Babylon, 17:7-17
  3. Commercial Babylon, 18:1-19
B. Where is Babylon the Great located?
If Babylon the Great has divisions (as noted above), are they all co-located?
Note: Most interpreters hold one of the following views tentatively, while continually comparing scripture with scripture and with current events.
  1. Babylon (ancient, geographic) - Combined capital of Religious & Political Babylon.
    The geographic location is suggested by historic names (eg., Babylon and the Euphrates River), and by judgments that will fulfill the total destruction prophesied upon this city (Isa 13:19-22).
  2. Rome - City of Religious Babylon (17:18)
    Rome - City of Political Babylon
     - Interpreting the seven heads of 17:9 are literal mountains, rather than kings (v.10),
    some place the beast in the City of Seven Hills. Since the final gentile world empire is a revived form of the Roman empire, it seems appropriate that the capital be Rome.
     - The term "Babylon" refers to the system, not the site.
    In this view, ch. 17 & 18 describe a single event: the destruction of Rome. The parallel descriptions of Religious & Political Babylon are cited as evidence of their co-location. (cp. 17:4; 18:16)
     - According to R.C.C. tradition, the apostle Peter was the first bishop of Rome (ie., first Pope).
    Although there is little evidence that Peter ever visited Rome, they contend that he was there when he wrote 1Pet 5:12,13, using 'Babylon' as a code name for Rome.
    [This view is held by JBSmith]
  3. Rome - City of Religious Babylon (17:18)
    Babylon (ancient, geographic) - City of Political / Commercial Babylon
     - Some object that ancient Babylon could hardly be called a seaport (18:17-19),
    since the Euphrates will be dried up then, and has not been navigable for centuries.
    However, increasing Arab/Islamic power makes a restoration of Babylon plausible.
    [This view is held by JFWalvoord]
  4. Rome - Combined capital of Religious & Political Babylon for the first 3.5 yrs of the Tribulation,
    is destroyed near the middle of the 7 year period. Then...
    Jerusalem - Becomes the Religious capital (as the beast establishes himself as god).
    Babylon (ancient, geographic) - Under construction up until mid-Tribulation,
    becomes capital of Political / Commercial Babylon.
    [This view is held by McGee]
  5. Rome - City of Religious Babylon (17:18), is destroyed near mid-Tribulation.
    Jerusalem - Becomes the Religious capital (as the beast establishes himself as god).
    Jerusalem is called the Great City (Jer 22:8; Rev 11:8,13; 16:18,19) because it is "the city of the Great King" (ie., of God, cp. Psa 48:1,2; Mat 5:34,35). By establishing himself in this place (2The 2:3,4), Satan (indwelling the Antichrist) reaches his goal of displacing the Lord from His rightful place (cp. Isa 14:13 with Psa 48:2).
    An unnamed city - becomes the center of Political Babylon.
    (The name "Babylon" is primarily symbolic of the 'confused' system.)
    Babylonianism has already had several distinct capitals.
    None of the first 6 heads ruled from the same capital city. (eg., The animal-like empires, which Daniel foresaw (and which are reflected in the beast's description, in 13:1-3) all ruled from their own territories (Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome).
         The final empire (7th head) could well be centered at a new location. Of necessity, the hub of the world's political and commercial enterprise would be a great city (GK= megapolis).
    However, Commercial Babylon (ch. 18), which fuels the world's economy,
    appears to involve more than a city. It's destruction may include a region over which the city is capital. (eg., Consider the relative impact on the world economy of the loss of New York City or London, compared to the loss of the United States or Europe. cp. Rev 18:10,16-19) In Rev 14:8 and 18:20,21, the fall of "that great city," seems to refer to the collapse of the entire system.
    Here, it is interesting to note that the Antichrist may arise as king of the West.
    Antichrist is described in Dan 11:36-39. He does battle with the kings of the North, South and East, in Dan 11:40-45. Since he "shall enter also into the glorious land" (ie., Israel), that is not his origin. Therefore, he must come from the remaining direction (west). He is allied with ten contemporary kings who give their power to him (Rev 17:12,13). Some speculate that he is head of the European Community (with capital in Brussels or some other prominent city). Others suggest that he may be head of the United Nations (headquartered in New York), or perhaps of the United States (with capital in Washington).
    Babylon (ancient, geographic) may be rebuilt and destroyed, during the Tribulation period,
    to bring completion to prophecy. As previously noted (in the notes at 14:8), the rebuilt city will probably be a historic monument to past glories, rather than a real world center. If so, the ancient city's final destruction would be appropriately linked to the destruction of the system which began there.
    [This view is favored by the editor.]
C. When will Babylon be destroyed?
If Babylon the Great has divisions (as noted above) will all perish at the same time?
D. How will Babylon be destroyed?
If Babylon the Great has divisions (as noted above) will all perish at the same hand?

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