Luke 13 - Outline of Luke (MENU page)
Luke has seven chief divisions:
I. The Evangelist's Introduction, 1:1-4.
II. The human relationships of Jesus, 1:5- 2:52.
III. The baptism, ancestry, and testing of Jesus, 3:1- 4:13.
IV. The ministry of the Son of man as Prophet-King in Galilee, 4:14- 9:50.
V. The journey of the Son of Man from Galilee to Jerusalem, 9:51- 19:44
VI. The final offer of the Son of man as King to Israel, His rejection and sacrifice, 19:45- 23:56.
VII. The resurrection, the resurrection ministry, and the ascension of the Son of man, 24:1-53.
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Tragic circumstances are not cause for men to judge others,
   but rather, reason for personal repentance.
(This incident is unique to Luke's Gospel.)
1 There were present at that season some that told him
of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.
"The Galilaeans are frequently mentioned by Josephus as the most turbulent and seditious people, being upon all occasions ready to disturb the Roman authority. It is uncertain to what event our Lord refers; but is probable that they were the followers of Judas Gaulonitis, who opposed paying tribute to Caesar and submitting to the Roman government. A party of them coming to Jerusalem during one of the great festivals, and presenting their oblations in the court of the temple, Pilate treacherously sent a company of soldiers, who slew them, and 'mingled their blood with their sacrifices'." [TSK note] cp. Acts 5:37
2 And Jesus answering said unto them,
Suppose ye that these Galilaeans were sinners above all the Galilaeans,
because they suffered such things?
3 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
4 Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them,
think ye that they were sinners
{debtors, offenders} above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?
5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
{Eze 18:30; Mat 3:1-2,10-12}
The nation had not truly responded to the call to repentance, issued by John and Jesus. Troubled by the untimely deaths of their countrymen, individuals ought to turn quickly from their sin to the Lord, for their own death and judgment was sure to come, whether they were ready or not.
     The Lord was also warning them, that because the nation had not repented and received their Messiah, 'all' would suffer the ruin of its judgment. (This warning is echoed in v.6-9 and v.34,35.)
Parable of the barren fig tree.
(Cf. Mat 21:18-20)
6 He spake also this parable;
A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard;
and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.
7 Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold,
these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none:
cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?
8 And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also,
till I shall dig about it, and dung it:
9 And if it bear fruit, well:
and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.
An unfruitful fig tree, like the unfruitful vineyard (Isa 5:1-7), represents national Israel (Hos 9:10). At this point in Luke's narrative, Jesus had been preaching and teaching for about three years. Very few had truly turned to produce the fruits of repentance (Mat 3:7-10). The axe of judgment would soon fall, unless the nation were to respond aright in the closing months of their Messiah's earthly ministry.
Jesus looses a woman from her infirmity, on the Sabbath.
(This miracle is unique to Luke's Gospel.)
(Cf. Mat 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-5; Luk 6:6-11)
10 And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.
11 And, behold, there was a woman
which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years,
and was bowed together
{bent over}, and could in no wise lift up {unbend} herself.
12 And when Jesus saw her, he called her to him,
and said unto her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity.
{Psa 107:20}
13 And he laid his hands on her:
and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God.
14 And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation,
because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day,
and said unto the people,
There are six days in which men ought to work:
{Ex 20:9}
in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.
15 The Lord then answered him, and said,
Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath
loose his ox or his ass from the stall,
and lead him away to watering?
{cp. Ex 23:12}
16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,
whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years,
be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?
17 And when he had said these things,
all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced
for all the glorious things that were done by him.
Jesus rebuked the religious leader for his hypocrisy concerning the sabbath day. The sabbath day, which provided rest and refreshment, not only for mankind, but even for domesticated animals, was an appropriate day for releasing this crippled woman from her long-term bondage.
     There is another layer to the religious leader's hypocrisy, which was perhaps too obvious to be mentioned: Although the synagogue ruler instructed people to come for healing on any day other than the sabbath, he failed to admit that there would be no healing, on any day without Jesus.
Parable of the mustard seed.
(Mat 13:31,32; Mark 4:30-32)
18 Then said he, Unto what is the kingdom of God like?
and whereunto shall I resemble it?
19 It is like a grain of mustard seed,
which a man took, and cast into his garden;
and it grew, and waxed a great tree;
and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.
{cp. fowl, in Mat 13:4,19}
This brief parable, like the one that follows it, is misunderstood by many.
See the Book Notes on the parallel passages in Matthew.
Parable of the leaven mixed in meal.
(Mat 13:33)
20 And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?
21 It is like leaven,
which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal,
till the whole was leavened.
{cp. leaven, in Mat 16:12; Luk 12:1; 1Cor 5:6-8}
Are there few that are saved?
(Mat 7:13,14)
22 And he went through the cities and villages, teaching,
and journeying toward Jerusalem.
23 Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved?
And he said unto them,
24 Strive to enter in at the strait
{narrow} gate: {Joh 14:6}
for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in,
and shall not be able.
{cp. Eze 33:31,32; Joh 8:21-24; Rom 9:31-33; 10:3,4}
25 When once the master of the house is risen up,
and hath shut to the door,
{Isa 55:6; 2Cor 6:2}
and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door,
saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us;
and he shall answer and say unto you,
I know you not whence ye are:
{Mat 7:21-23; cp. Joh 6:28,29}
26 Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence,
and thou hast taught in our streets.
27 But he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are;
depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity.
28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth,
when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob,
and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God,
and you yourselves thrust out.
{eg., Luk 10:13-15}
29 And they shall come from the east, and from the west,
and from the north, and from the south,
and shall sit down in the kingdom of God.
{Mat 8:11,12}
30 And, behold, there are last which shall be first,
and there are first which shall be last.
{Rom 1:16; 9:30-33}
The Pharisees 'warn' Jesus against Herod.
(This incident is unique to Luke's Gospel.)
31 The same day there came certain of the Pharisees,
saying unto him, Get thee out, and depart hence:
for Herod will kill thee.
{Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great}
Here, Jesus' enemies sought to get rid of Him, by causing Him to fear for His life. cp. Psa 11:1-2
32 And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox,
Josephus described Herod Antipas as crafty and incestuous.
The NT writers paint a similar picture (eg., Luk 3:19,20; Mark 6:26-28; Luk 23:8-11).
Jesus summed him up in one word: Herod was a 'fox' (ie., a sly cunning person).
Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to day and to morrow, {Luk 9:7-9}
and the third day I shall be perfected.
{John 17:4,5; 19:30; Heb 2:10; 5:8,9}
33 Nevertheless I must walk to day,
and to morrow, and the day following:
{Joh 9:4}
for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.
{Acts 13:27}
Despite the Pharisees' fearful warning, Jesus would finish His Father's work, in Jerusalem.
Jesus laments over Jerusalem
(Mat 23:37-39; Cf. Luk 19:41-44)
34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets,
and stonest them that are sent unto thee;
how often would I have gathered thy children together,
{"I", Joh 10:30}
as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings,
{eg., Deu 32:11,12; Psa 91:4}
and ye would not!
{Deu 5:29; 32:29; Psa 81:11; Isa 30:15}
35 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate:
{cp. Luk 21:5,6}
and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me,
{Hos 3:4,5; Joh 8:22-24}
until the time come when ye shall say,
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
{Rom 11:7-12,25-27; Zech 12:10; 13:1}

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