Ruth 4 - Outline of Ruth (Book Notes menu page)
4:1 Then went Boaz up to the gate, and sat him down there:
and, behold, the kinsman
{HB=goel} of whom Boaz spake came by; {Ruth 3:12}
unto whom he said, Ho, such a one! turn aside, sit down here.
And he turned aside, and sat down.
4:2 And he took ten men of the elders of the city,
and said, Sit ye down here. And they sat down.
4:3 And he said unto the kinsman,
Naomi, that is come again out of the country of Moab,
selleth a parcel of land, which [was] our brother Elimelech's:
4:4 And I thought to advertise
{HB=amar, to tell} thee, saying,
{HB=qanah, acquire, possess} [it] before the inhabitants,
and before the elders of my people.
If thou wilt redeem [it]
{HB=goel}, redeem [it] {HB=padah, ransom}:
but if thou wilt not redeem
{HB=goel} [it, then] tell me, that I may know:
for [there is] none to redeem [it]
{HB=goel} beside thee; and I [am] after thee.
And he said, I will redeem [it]
Boaz {went} up to the gate...- Sooner or later the man he sought would pass through the gate.
The gate of a city was where legal matters were resolved. Deu 16:18
Here the elders sat to judge and witness all sorts of transactions and grievances.
Boaz first represents the Property needing redemption.
Apparently, Elimelech, having become impoverished, had sold his inherited portion of land, in order to finance the move to Moab. Now, Naomi was in poverty. The land would revert to her at the year of Jubilee (which may have been several years away), but meanwhile she had no source of income. cp. Lev 25:10,13-16
'if thou wilt redeem it, redeem it...' 'I will redeem it' -
Kinsman-Redeemer, Qualification #3- He must be Willing to Redeem.-
The nearer kinsman, qualified to perform the role of the 'goel,' since he was...
  • a blood relative,
  • able to pay the price to redeem the land, and
  • willing to redeem the land.- To be unwilling would have been disgraceful.
    But his eager readiness may also have been prompted by favorable transaction terms.
    The purchase price would have been calculated based on the original sale price, prorated according to the years remaining until the year of Jubilee (Lev 25:23-28). The kinsman could purchase the land for considerably less than what Elimelech had sold it. The 'goel' would also be responsible to provide financially for Naomi from the proceeds of farming the land. But since she had no heirs, the land would eventually become his permanent possession (not to be surrendered at the year of Jubilee). Financially, this was a good deal for him.
4:5 Then said Boaz, What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi,
thou must buy
{HB=qanah, acquire, possess} [it] also
of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead,
to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance.
4:6 And the kinsman said, I cannot redeem [it]
{HB=goel} for myself,
lest I mar mine own inheritance:
{HB=goel} thou my right to thyself; for I cannot redeem [it] {HB=goel}.
4:7 Now this [was the manner] in former time in Israel
concerning redeeming
{HB=gullah, redemption of kin}
and concerning changing
{ie., property exchange},
for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave [it] to his neighbour:
and this [was] a testimony in Israel.
4:8 Therefore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Buy [it] for thee. So he drew off his shoe.
Boaz next represents the Person needing redemption.
Ruth - comes with the property. Attached to her are additional concerns and responsibilities.-
  • the Moabitess - There was a stigma attached to her. Deu 23:3
  • the wife of the dead, to raise up... upon his inheritance.- The 'goel' would also be required to marry Ruth according to the Law of Levirate Marriage (Deu 25:5-10).
I cannot redeem it... lest I mar {HB=shachath, to corrupt, to decay} mine own inheritance.-
ie., Ruth's future son(s) could potentially dilute the rights of his existing children to the family estate.
The nearer kinsman disqualified himself as being unable to redeem,
not because of financial inability, but because of prior legal encumbrances.
The nearer kinsman pictures the Law, which would redeem, but is legally unable to do so.
The Law, the standard of righteousness, is good. But we are sinful. Rom 7:7-14
The Law would have to be compromised, if we were to be accepted under it. Rom 3:19,20; Gal 3:10
Boaz, being fully able to redeem, pictures Christ our Kinsman-Redeemer.
  1. The Law did not encumber Him, for He was 'mighty' in regard to the Law.
    cp. Ruth 2:1; Mat 5:17; Rom 8:3,4; Gal 3:13; 4:4,5
  2. The price of redemption did not hinder Him, for He was able to pay it.
    For Boaz, the purchase price of Elimelech's estate was probably well within his means.
    Even the kinsman, who was unable to redeem, was wealthy enough to buy that property.
    But the price Christ paid for our redemption was extreme.-
4:9 And Boaz said unto the elders, and [unto] all the people,
Ye [are] witnesses this day, that I have bought all that [was] Elimelech's,
and all that [was] Chilion's and Mahlon's, of the hand of Naomi.
4:10 Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon,
have I purchased to be my wife,
to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance,
that the name of the dead be not cut off from among his brethren,
and from the gate of his place: ye [are] witnesses this day.
4:11 And all the people that [were] in the gate,
and the elders, said, [We are] witnesses.
The LORD make the woman that is come into thine house
like Rachel and like Leah, which two did build the house of Israel:
and do thou worthily in Ephratah, and be famous in Bethlehem:
4:12 And let thy house be like the house of Pharez, whom Tamar bare unto Judah,
of the seed which the LORD shall give thee of this young woman.
I have bought... I have purchased... {HB=qanah, to acquire, buy, purchase, possess} -
Boaz purchased...
  1. that which Elimelech had forfeited.
    (Likewise, Christ redeemed that which Adam lost. Rom 5:12-21)
  2. Ruth to be his wife.
    (Likewise, Christ purchased His bride, the Church. Eph 5:25-27)
    Note that while she was joined to Mahlon (an Israelite 'dead in trespasses and sins'), Ruth remained a Moabitess, excluded from the congregation of Israel. But joined by Grace to the Redeemer, she is welcomed as a member of the family of God. cp. Eph 2:1-19
The people asked the LORD to bless Boaz' wife and family by making them...-
  • Rachel and like Leah...- the wives of Jacob from whom came the twelve tribes of Israel. (The sons born to their handmaids were also considered as belonging to Rachel & Leah.)
  • the house of Pharez, whom Tamar bore unto Judah...-
    At the time of the Exodus from Egypt, Judah was the largest of Israel's tribes (with almost 20% more population than the next largest tribe, Numbers ch. 1). This was all the more remarkable considering that of Judah's five sons, the first two died childless (because the Lord slew them for their wickedness, Gen 46:12). Tamar had been the wife of Er (Judah's eldest son). She eventually bore twins, fathered by Judah (Gen 38:6-30). Pharez was the second born of these twins, the last of Judah's sons. Yet, emerging from a position of insignificance, his family became the prominent line in Judah. From him would come the Davidic kings, including the Messiah. Boaz himself was a descendant of Pharez (v.18-20).
4:13 So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife:
and when he went in unto her,
the LORD gave her conception, and she bare a son.
4:14 And the women said unto Naomi, Blessed [be] the LORD,
which hath not left thee this day without a kinsman,
that his name may be famous in Israel.
4:15 And he shall be unto thee a restorer of [thy] life,
and a nourisher of thine old age:
for thy daughter in law, which loveth thee,
which is better to thee than seven sons, hath born him.
4:16 And Naomi took the child,
and laid it in her bosom, and became nurse unto it.
4:17 And the women her neighbours gave it a name, saying,
There is a son born to Naomi; and they called his name Obed:
he [is] the father of Jesse, the father of David.
There is a son born unto Naomi...-
Although Naomi was not related by blood to Ruth's son, the child was legally her grandson.
Her role as grandmother, restored to Naomi the joy of which she had once despaired (Ruth 1:20,21).
they called his name Obed {HB= 'servant', 'worshipper'} -
No doubt, he was a little servant to Naomi in her old age.
He was the heir to her estate. He became the grandfather of David, and a progenitor of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Blessed be the LORD, who hath not left thee this day without a kinsman {HB=goel}... - (v.14)
'The Kinsman-Redeemer, whose name would be famous in Israel,' is not a reference to Boaz, but rather, refers to one born of Ruth (v.15)... ie., to Obed... Jesse... David... and ultimately, the Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ (Isa 11:1-4).
4:18 Now these [are] the generations of Pharez: Pharez begat Hezron,
4:19 And Hezron begat Ram, and Ram begat Amminadab,
4:20 And Amminadab begat Nahshon, and Nahshon begat Salmon,
4:21 And Salmon begat Boaz, and Boaz begat Obed,
4:22 And Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat David.
The importance of this genealogy -
  1. It establishes the time of writing of this book (sometime after Samuel anointed David as king, and before Solomon's ascension to the throne). Samuel may have written this book.
  2. It is one of only two genealogies in the OT which trace David's lineage (the other is 1Chr 2:1-17).
  3. It establishes David's right to rule, as a descendant of Judah (cp. Gen 49:10).
  4. It provides a vital link in the genealogy of Jesus which establishes His right to David's throne (one of the credentials of the Messiah, the Christ).
    • The genealogy of Jesus, through His step-father, Joseph - Mat 1:1-16
    • The genealogy of Jesus, through His mother, Mary - Luke 3:23-38
Ruth is one of five women mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus (in Mat 1:1-16).
'The Grace of God that brings salvation' is pictured in different ways in each of their stories.
See the Book Notes on Mat 1:1-6 for a discussion of Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba.
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Mary, the fifth woman and final link in the lineage of Jesus, also recognized her own need for a Savior. She rejoiced in God's mercy toward His people, and in His faithfulness to His promises, in sending the Savior into the world via His birth to a virgin. Luk 1:46-55; Joh 1:17
The Son born to her is our Kinsman-Redeemer. He alone is...
  • eligible - as the Son of man, He is...
    our blood relative, born of a woman, a true son of David. Luk 1:31,32; Heb 2:14-18
  • able - as the Son of God (the Son of the Highest, Luk 1:32-35), He is...
    • unencumbered by sin: ''that holy thing which shall be born of thee.''
    • fully equipped to save His people from their sins. Mat 1:21-23
  • willing - to pay the full price of redemption, being motivated by...
Have you asked Him to 'cover you with His skirt' as your Redeemer?
Are you submitting to His loving leadership and feeding at His table, that you may walk with Him and be fruitful?

This concludes the study in Ruth.
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