PSALM 110 - Messiah: The King-Priest
110:1 A Psalm of David.

The LORD
{Jehovah} said unto my Lord {Adoni},
Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
Jesus quoted this verse to encourage the Pharisees to ask themselves who the Christ is.
He is more than a man, more than a king's son.
Even King David acknowledged Him as his Master. "Mat 22:41-45"
The writer of Hebrews quoted this verse in regard to Christ's authority:
He is better than (ie., above) the angels. "Heb 1:13"
Peter quoted this vs. in his first sermon after Jesus' death, resurrection & ascension.
He is both Lord & Christ (the Anointed). "Act 2:34-36"
This Psalm reveals Him as the Lord of lords, and also as the Anointed Priest, who alone can atone for sins.
Today, Jesus is seated at the right hand of the Father, awaiting the set time when
He will judge the earth. No matter how we rebel against Him, no matter how we shut Him out of our lives (even to the point of crucifying Him), He is who He is.
David called Him "my Lord". But is He your Lord? Mark 13:32-37
thy footstool- cp. 1Cor 15:24-28; Php 2:9-11; Eph 1:20-22
110:2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion:
rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
The day is coming when the Messiah will return from where He is seated at the right hand of God (in the heavenly Zion, Rom 11:26,27), to rule the world from Jerusalem (the earthly Zion).
Not everyone will submit willingly. He will rule them with a heavy hand. Psa 2:9
110:3 Thy people [shall be] willing in the day of thy power,
willing- lit., free-will offerings.
thy people- ie., The Jews, who once would not have Him to rule over them (cp. Luk 19:14; Joh 19:15),
will turn to Him during the time of Jacob's Trouble (the Great Tribulation). Zechariah 12-14 depicts that terrible time. The surviving third of Israel's population will cry out from the ashes of destruction as they finally recognize & submit to Him. Zech 12:9,10; Zech 13:1,8,9
Who will they see? What will they say to Him?
in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning:
thou hast the dew of thy youth.
At first reading, the meaning is unclear. Some of the newer translations have attempted to make this verse more readable. For example, the NASV:
"In holy array, from the womb of the dawn, thy young men are to thee as the dew."
However, this obscures the meaning by shifting focus from the Lord to an army of men. This is inconsistent with the rest of the Psalm, which never glances away from David's Lord.
the beauties of holiness-
God's Son is "the brightness of His glory, the express image of His person." Heb 1:3
Neither Israel's blindness, nor the world's darkness can dim His Holiness.
(Just as night hides, but does not diminish, the actual heat & brightness of the sun.)
"Holy, Holy, Holy, though the darkness hide thee,
Though the eye of sinful men thy glories may not see..." [hymn]
cp. Joh 1:4,5; Rom 11:25; 2Cor 4:3,4
His people will finally recognize Him as the Holy One of Israel. Isa 60:1,2
the womb of the morning- This refers to the fact that Christ is the Son of God.
Yet it does not refer to Bethlehem. Jesus came into the world when it was night. The beauties of holiness were not His 'from' Mary's womb. They were always His. Luk 2:9; Joh 1:14; 3:19; 17:1-5
We know He is God's Son, not because He emerged from the womb, but because He emerged from the tomb. Psa 2:7; Rom 1:4
Israel will recognize Him, not merely as David's son, but as God the Son: "They shall look upon Me whom they have pierced..." (Zech 12:10)
the dew of thy youth-
His glory does not fade. He does not grow old, weak or weary.
He is the Ancient of Days, yet He makes all things new. Mic 5:2; Rev 21:5
110:4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent,
Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.
Abraham, returning from a battle, was met by this man: "and Melchizedek, King of Salem, brought forth bread and wine, and he was the priest of the Most High God." Gen 14:18
The writer of Hebrews, quotes this verse in "Heb 5:5,6", and then proceeds to develop
several parallels between Melchizedek & Christ ("Heb 7:1-28"):
MelchizedekChrist
-M. had no recorded beginning or end.-Christ is at once Ancient, yet Ageless.
-M. means "King of Righteousness".-Christ is Holy, undefiled, the Lord our Righteousness.
-M. was also King of Salem (Peace). -Christ is our peace. His reign will bring peace.
Isa 32:17; Rom 5:1; Eph 2:13,14
-M. was both King & Priest.-Christ is the Anointed One in both senses.
Zech 6:12,13; Heb 8:1
-M. priesthood contrasts w/ Levitical. -Christ (like Melchizedek):
- - Death forced a succession of Levitical priests.- - is "a priest forever".
- - Sin required their continuing sacrifices.- - offered one sacrifice once for all.
-M. offered no (recorded) blood sacrifice. But he brought forth bread & wine.-Christ offered Himself as the only sacrifice of the M. priesthood. Bread & wine is His memorial.
sworn...will not repent- The believer in Jesus Christ is secured by God's oath.
Although the Levitical priests, sacrifices, and system were set aside once Christ fulfilled their types, the new Testament in Christ will never be superseded. (Heb 7:20-22)
110:5 The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath.
Note the change of speaker:
vs.1-4, The LORD speaks to David's Lord (Adon).
vs.5-7, David speaks: addressing the LORD, about his Lord (Adon), with prophetic insight.
The Lord at [the LORD's] right hand- is Christ. (cp. Heb 12:2; 1Pet 3:22)
The word used for 'Lord' is HB= Adon.
'Adoni' (v.1) is the first person possessive form of Adon (ie., 'My Lord').
Adon usually refers to a human lord or master. Thus, David's 'Adon' is his superior.
- - However, David's Lord is also 'at the LORD's right hand,' that is side by side with God.
The word 'Adon' is closely related to the word 'Adonai'. 'Adonai' is always used as a name for God (translated as 'Lord'). The word 'Adon' is often used synonomously with 'Adonai,' in reference to God. Consider just a few examples:
  • Exodus 23:17- 'The Lord (Adon) GOD.'
  • Deuteronomy 10:17- 'The LORD your God is God of gods, and the Lord (Adon) of lords.'
  • Joshua 3:11,13 - 'The Lord (Adon) of all the earth.'
  • Psalm 8:1- 'O LORD, our Lord (Adon) how excellent is thy name in all the earth!'
  • Hosea 12:14 - 'Ephraim provoked him... his reproach shall his Lord (Adon) return unto him.'
  • Micah 4:13 - '...I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD, and their substance unto the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth.'
  • Zechariah 4:14 - '...that stand before the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth.'
  • Malachi 3:1-3 'The Lord (Adon) whom you seek, shall suddenly come to His temple, even the messenger of the Covenant... he shall come.'
    -- This last passage shows us that the Messiah (Christ) is both the Lord of lords (the man who is above all men), and the LORD who alone can rightly occupy His Temple, and who alone has the right to judge His people.
{He} shall strike through kings... the day of His wrath-
the occasion is Armageddon. Rev 19:11-16
110:6 He shall judge among the heathen {ie., the nations},
he shall fill [the places] with the dead bodies;
The blood will run to the horse bridles. The birds will have their feast.
Rev 14:20; Rev 19:17,18
he shall wound the heads over many countries.
The power structure of the world will be completely reorganized under the King of kings.
Rev 11:15; Rev 12:10; Rev 18:9,10
110:7 He shall drink of the brook in the way:
therefore shall he lift up the head.
The Great Tribulation period, which immediately precedes Christ's return,
will be marked by death, destruction, & ecological catastrophe (including waters turned to blood: made bitter & undrinkable). Heads will hang down in despair.
Christ will usher in "the times of refreshing".
In the day when He drinks from the brook, the nations will find healing.
Joel 3:18; Rev 22:1,2; Acts 3:19-21


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