Luke 22 - Outline of Luke (MENU page)
Luke has seven chief divisions:
I. The Evangelist's Introduction, 1:1-4.
II. The human relationships of Jesus, 1:5- 2:52.
III. The baptism, ancestry, and testing of Jesus, 3:1- 4:13.
IV. The ministry of the Son of man as Prophet-King in Galilee, 4:14- 9:50.
V. The journey of the Son of Man from Galilee to Jerusalem, 9:51- 19:44
VI. The final offer of the Son of man as King to Israel, His rejection and sacrifice, 19:45- 23:56.
VII. The resurrection, the resurrection ministry, and the ascension of the Son of man, 24:1-53.
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Judas covenants to betray Jesus.
(Mat 26:2,14-16; Mark 14:1-2,10-11)
1. Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh,
which is called the Passover.
{cp. Ex 12:6-11,14-20}
2 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him;
for they feared the people.
3 Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot,
{cp. Joh 13:2,27}
being of the number of the twelve.
4 And he went his way,
and communed with the chief priests and captains,
how he might betray him unto them.
5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
{cp. Zech 11:12; Mat 26:15; Luk 16:13}
6 And he promised, and sought opportunity
to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
Preparation for the Passover.
(Mat 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16)
7. Then came the day of unleavened bread,
when the passover must be killed.
8 And he sent Peter and John, saying,
Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.
9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
10 And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city,
there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water;
follow him into the house where he entereth in.
11 And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house,
The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber,
where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
13 And they went, and found as he had said unto them:
and they made ready the passover.
The last Passover.
(Cf. Mat 26:20; Mark 14:17; Joh 13:1-17)
14 And when the hour was come,
he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired
to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof,
until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said,
Take this, and divide [it] among yourselves:
18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine,
until the kingdom of God shall come.
{cp. Mat 26:29}
with desire {GK=epithumia, passionate longing} I have desired {GK=epithumeo}
to eat this passover with you before I suffer {GK=pascho, suffer the pain of passion}...
Our Lord's passionate longing was to do the Father's will, by completing the purpose for which He came into the world. eg., Psa 40:7,8; Luk 12:50; Joh 4:34
     Now, at this Passover, the time to finish that work had come (Joh 13:1; 17:1). For He was about to offer Himself as the sacrifice for our sins (Heb 9:11-12,24-26; 10:1-10; 1Cor 5:7).
     Although He had repeatedly foretold His death and resurrection, the disciples still had not understood. Now, "before I suffer," He sets forth the significance of His sufferings, in a way that would be long remembered. In due time, the Holy Spirit would teach them 'why' He suffered {GK=pascho, to feel, to suffer, cp. 1Pet 3:18}. However, even "after His passion" {GK=pascho}, the apostles would never fully comprehend 'what' He suffered, both physically and spiritually. Yet, through His passion, He accomplished His desire: to fulfill the Father's will in making Himself known to His own (Acts 1:3; 17:1-3).
I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
In that day, the 'fruit of the vine' will be the cause of joy for the Lord. He will drink it 'new' with His own, in His Kingdom (at the Marriage Supper of the Lamb). His great joy will be, not in a beverage, but in the realization of the 'fruit' of the 'true Vine' who poured out His Life, for (and into) the 'many' who trust in Him (cp. Isa 53:11,12; Joh 15:1-5; 1The 2:19).
The Lord's Supper instituted.
(Mat 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; 1Cor 11:23-32)
19 And he took bread, and gave thanks,
and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying,
This is my body which is given for you:
this do in remembrance of me.
20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying,
This cup [is] the new testament in my blood,
which is shed for you.
Jesus announces His betrayal.
(Mat 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; Joh 13:18-30)
21. But, behold,
the hand of him that betrayeth me [is] with me on the table.
{Psa 41:9}
22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined:
but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!
{Psa 55:12-15}
23 And they began to enquire among themselves,
which of them it was that should do this thing.
The strife among the disciples concerning who should be greatest.
(Cf. Mat 20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45)
24 And there was also a strife among them,
which of them should be accounted the greatest.
25 And he said unto them,
The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them;
and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
{cp. Mat 20:25}
The word 'benefactors' {GK=euergetes, lit., workers of good} was used as a title by Ptolemy III Euergetes (who reigned in Egypt, c. 246-222 BC), and later by Antiochus VII (who reigned in Syria, c. 138-129 BC). Israel had not forgotten the oppressive rule of these tyrants. Therefore, the disciples understood Jesus was telling them not to 'lord it over' their fellow believers (cp. 1Pet 5:1-4).
26 But ye [shall] not [be] so:
but he that is greatest among you, let him be
{become} as the younger;
and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
{cp. Mat 23:8-12}
27 For whether [is] greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth?
[is] not he that sitteth at meat?
but I am among you as he that serveth.
{Mat 20:28; Joh 13:3-5; Php 2:5-8}
The apostles' place in the future kingdom.
(Mat 19:28)
28 Ye are they which have continued {remained, persevered} with me
in my temptations
{trials, testings}. {cp. Joh 6:66-71; Heb 2:18; 4:15}
29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom,
{cp. Luk 12:32; Jam 2:5}
as my Father hath appointed unto me;
{Rev 2:26,27; 3:21}
30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom,
{Rev 19:9}
and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
{cp. Rev 4:4}
Jesus predicts Peter's denial.
(Mat 26:33-35; Mark 14:29-31; Joh 13:36-38)
31 And the Lord said,
Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired [to have] you,
that he may sift [you] as wheat:
32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not:
and when thou art converted
{turned back},
{GK=sterizo, establish, make stedfast} thy brethren.
33 And he said unto him,
Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.
34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day,
before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.
'Simon' {meaning 'hearing'} was Peter's natural name. The Lord had renamed him Cephas (HB) or Peter (GK), both meaning 'stone' or 'rock,' because He would cause His servant to become strong, solid, and unshakeable in the faith (Joh 1:42). But at this point, Peter thought he could stand in his own strength. Jesus emphasized Peter's natural weakness by using and doubling his natural name.
     Foreknowing Simon's fleshly failure, the Lord had prayed {besought God} that his faith would not fail, under Satan's accusations. Though his faith was weak, Simon had heard and believed in God's Son (Joh 5:24; 10:27-30). The Lord would preserve him, because he was among the 'wheat,' whereas Judas was among the 'tares' set for destruction (Mat 13:30). Yet, the Lord would allow Satan to sift Simon 'like wheat,' in order to remove the 'chaff' of his self-confidence (v.33,34), much as God had used Satan's affliction of Job to refine His righteous servant (Job 2:3-6; 23:10).
     Confronted with his fleshly failure, Peter would turn from himself, to place his full confidence in his Lord, who secured his conversion (1Joh 1:8-10; 2:1,2) and caused him to stand upon the true Rock (Mat 7:24; 16:15-18).
     Subsequently, having become strong in Christ, Peter was used of the Lord to establish his brethren upon the same Foundation (eg., 1Pet 2:4,5; 5:8-10; 2Pet 1:10-15; 3:17,18
  Jesus warns the disciples of coming conflicts.
35 And he said unto them,
When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes,
lacked ye any thing?
{Mat 10:9,10; Luk 9:3; 10:4}
And they said, Nothing.
36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse
{money belt},
let him take [it], and likewise [his] scrip
{small bag}:
and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.
His disciples, who had previously been supported by friendly countrymen, would now be serving Him in hostile territory (eg., Mat 10:22-25; Joh 15:20; 16:33). A 'sword' {a knife, or short sword, not necessarily a weapon of war} might be used as a tool for survival in the wilderness and/or for self-defense against thieves.
37 For I say unto you,
that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me,
And he was reckoned among the transgressors:
{Isa 53:12; Mark 15:27,28}
for the things concerning me have an end
{a finishing point, a fulfillment of purpose}.
cp. v.15-20; 2Cor 5:21; Gal 3:13}
38 And they said, Lord, behold, here [are] two swords.
And he said unto them, It is enough
{sufficient}. {cp. Mat 26:51-54; 2Cor 10:3-5}
While all four Gospel accounts mention that one of the disciples (ie., Peter) used a sword, in the garden at the time of Jesus' arrest, only Luke records how the Lord counseled each to buy one, and explains where this sword came from. One (or two) swords was sufficient, on this occasion, because the Lord would not resist arrest (Joh 18:36).
Jesus in the garden.
(Mat 26:36-42; Mark 14:26,32-42; Joh 18:1)
39. And he came out, and went, as he was wont {accustomed}, {cp. Luk 21:37,38}
to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.
40 And when he was at the place,
he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation
41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast,
and kneeled down, and prayed,
42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me:
nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.
44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly:
and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
Only doctor Luke records this outward indication of the intensity of the Lord's inner agony.
His 'passion' (v.15) had begun. cp. Psa 143:6,7; Joh 12:27; Rom 8:32; Heb 5:7
45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples,
he found them sleeping for sorrow
46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye?
rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation
Matthew and Mark record that the disciples were sleeping because their eyes were 'heavy' {burdened}. Luke reports that it was a burden of grief. As the Savior agonized in prayer (at a distance from them, and obscured by darkness), they were exhausted by what little they could observe of His burden.
     Yet, being vulnerable to Satan's assault, they were in greater need of prayer. cp. Joh 14:30; 1Pet 5:8 (where "Be sober, be vigilant..." can be translated 'Watch, keep awake...')
Jesus betrayed by Judas; restores a severed ear.
(Mat 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-50; Joh 18:3-11)
47. And while he yet spake, behold a multitude,
and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them,
and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
{Prov 27:6}
48 But Jesus said unto him,
Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
49 When they which were about him saw what would follow,
they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?
50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest,
and cut off his right ear.
51 And Jesus answered and said,
{GK=eao, allow} ye thus far. {ie., 'Enough of this!' [NET2]; 'No more of this!' [NASB]}
And he touched his ear, and healed him.
Only doctor Luke records the healing of the severed ear.
52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple,
and the elders, which were come to him,
Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
{cp. v.37}
53 When I was daily with you in the temple,
ye stretched forth no hands against me:
{cp. Mat 21:45,46; Joh 7:30}
but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
{cp. Eph 6:12; Col 1:13}
Jesus arrested; Peter's denial.
(Mat 26:57-58,69-75; Mark 14:53-54,66-72; Joh 18:12,15-18,25-27)
54. Then took they him, and led [him],
and brought him into the high priest's house.
And Peter followed afar off.
55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall,
and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.
56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire,
and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.
57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.
58 And after a little while another saw him,
and said, Thou art also of them.
And Peter said, Man, I am not.
Some have imagined conflicts between the accounts, concerning whether the three accusers were men or women. A careful comparison reveals this complaint is baseless. All accounts agree the initial accuser was a woman. The word 'another' {GK=heteros} refers to a different person (of either gender). In some translations, the translators needlessly assumed a gender. It is likely that on each occasion, one person made the charge and several spoke in affirmation. Peter responding to his accusers, addressed the most recent or the most outspoken person.
59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed,
saying, Of a truth this [fellow] also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.
60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest.
And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter.
And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him,
Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
Jesus buffeted.
(Mat 26:67,68; Mark 14:65; Joh 18:22,23)
63. And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote [him].
64 And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face,
and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?
{Isa 50:6}
65 And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
Jesus before the Sanhedrin.
(Mat 26:59-68; Mark 14:55-65; Joh 18:19-24)
66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people
and the chief priests and the scribes came together,
and led him into their council, saying,
67 Art thou the Christ? tell us.
And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:
68 And if I also ask [you], ye will not answer me, nor let [me] go.
69 Hereafter shall the Son of man
sit on the right hand of the power of God.
{Psa 110:1; Dan 7:13,14}
70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God?
And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
{ie., 'You say [it], that I am.' cp. Joh 8:58}
71 And they said, What need we any further witness?
for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
{Mat 26:65,66}
For the order of events and legal irregularities pertaining to Jesus' trial, see the Book Notes on Matthew 26:59-68.

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